Financial management is concerned with the acquisition, financing, and management of assets with some overall goal in mind. Thus the decision function of financial management can be broken down into three major areas: the investment, financing, and asset management decisions.
The investment decision is the most important of the firm's three major decisions when it comes to value creation. It begins with a determination of the total amount of assets needed to be held by the firm. Picture the firm's balance sheet in your mind for a moment. Imagine liabilities and owners' equity being listed on the right side of the balance sheet and its assets on the left. The financial manager needs to determine the dollar amount that appears above the double lines on the ieft-hand side of the balance sheet - that is, the size of the firm. Even when this number is known, the composition of the assets must still be decided. For example, how much of the firm's total assets should be devoted to cash or to inventory? Also, the flip side of investment - disinvestment - must not be ignored. Assets that can no longer be economically justified may need to be reduced, eliminated, or replaced.
The second major decision of the firm is the financing decision. Here the financial manager is concerned with the makeup of the right-hand side of the balance sheet. If you look at the mix of financing for firms across industries, you will see marked differences. Some firms have relatively large amounts of debt, whereas others are almost debt free. Does the type of financing employed make a difference? If so, why? And, in some sense, can a certain mix offinancing be thought ofas best?
In addition, dividend policy must be viewed as an integral part of the firm's financing decision. The dividend-payout ratio determines the amount of earnings that can be retained in the firm. Retaining a greater amount of current earnings in the firm means that fewer dollars will be available for current dividend payments. The value of the dividends paid to stockholders must therefore be balanced against the opportunity cost of retained earnings lost as a means of equity financing.
Once the mix of financing has been decided, the financial manager must still determine how best to physically acquire the needed funds. The mechanics of getting a short-term loan, entering into a long-term lease arrangement, or negotiating a sale of bonds or stock must be understood.
Asset Management Decision
The third important decision of the firm is the asset management decision. Once assets have been acquired and appropriate financing provided, these assets must still be managed effrciently. The financial manager is charged with varying degrees of operating responsibility over existing assets. These responsibilities require that the financial manager be more concerned with the management of current assets than with that of fixed assets. A large share of the responsibility for the management of fixed assets would reside with the operating managers who employ these assets.